Foetoplacental epigenetic changes associated with maternal metabolic dysfunction

Bredford Kerr, Andrea Leiva, Marcelo Farias, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Francisca Stolzenbach, Luis Silva, Luis Sobrevia

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    Abstract

    Metabolic-related diseases are attributed to a sedentary lifestyle and eating habits, and there is now an increased awareness regarding pregnancy as a preponderant window in the programming of adulthood health and disease. The developing foetus is susceptible to the maternal environment; hence, any unfavourable condition will result in foetal physiological adaptations that could have a permanent impact on its health. Some of these alterations are maintained via epigenetic modifications capable of modifying gene expression in metabolism-related genes. Children born to mothers with dyslipidaemia, pregestational or gestational obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus, have a predisposition to develop metabolic alterations during adulthood. CpG methylation-associated alterations to the expression of several genes in the human placenta play a crucial role in the mother-to-foetus transfer of nutrients and macromolecules. Identification of epigenetic modifications in metabolism-related tissues of offspring from metabolic-altered pregnancies is essential to obtain insights into foetal programming controlling newborn, childhood, and adult metabolism. This review points out the importance of the foetal milieu in the programming and development of human disease and provides evidence of this being the underlying mechanism for the development of adulthood metabolic disorders in maternal dyslipidaemia, pregestational or gestational obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. (c) 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)146-152
    Number of pages7
    JournalPlacenta
    Volume69
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Sep-2018

    Keywords

    • Epigenetic
    • Programming
    • Placenta
    • Vasculature
    • Endothelial dysfunction
    • GESTATIONAL DIABETES-MELLITUS
    • EARLY ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS
    • VEIN ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION
    • TRIMETHYLAMINE-N-OXIDE
    • NON-CPG METHYLATION
    • DNA METHYLATION
    • ADENOSINE TRANSPORT
    • PERINATAL OUTCOMES
    • CORD BLOOD
    • FAT MASS

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