Follow-Up of Offspring Born to Parents With a Solid Organ Transplantation: A Systematic Review

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Pregnancy after solid organ transplantation (SOT) has potential risks for the offspring. Most existing research focused on short-term pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate available data concerning longer term outcomes (>1 year) of these children. A systematic literature search, following PRISMA guidelines, of PubMed and Embase was performed from the earliest date of inception through to 6th April 2022. Publications on all types of (combined) SOT were eligible for inclusion. In total, 53 articles were included. The majority assessed offspring after kidney (78% of offspring) or liver transplantation (17% of offspring). 33 studies included offspring aged >4 years and five offspring aged >18 years. One study was included on fathers with SOT. The majority of the 1,664 included children after maternal SOT had normal intellectual, psychomotor, and behavioral development. Although prematurity and low birth weight were commonly present, regular growth after 1 year of age was described. No studies reported opportunistic or chronic infections or abnormal response to vaccinations. In general, pregnancy after SOT appears to have reassuring longer term outcomes for the offspring. However, existing information is predominantly limited to studies with young children. Longer prospective studies with follow-up into adulthood of these children are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10565
Number of pages12
JournalTransplant International
Publication statusPublished - 5-Aug-2022


  • follow-up
  • long-term
  • offspring
  • pregnancy
  • transplantation

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