Fully direct written organic micro-thermoelectric generators embedded in a plastic foil

M. Massetti, S. Bonfadini, D. Nava, M. Butti, L. Criante, G. Lanzani, L. Qiu, J. C. Hummelen, J. Liu, L. J. A. Koster, M. Caironi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Organic materials have attracted great interest for thermoelectric applications due to their tuneable electronic properties, solution processability and earth-abundance, potentially enabling high-throughput realization of low-cost devices for low-power energy harvesting applications. So far, organic thermoelectricity has primarily focused on materials development, with less attention given to integrated generators. Yet, future applications will require the combination of efficient generators architectures and scalable manufacturing techniques to leverage the advantages of such promising materials. Here we report the realization of a monolithic organic micro-thermoelectric generator (μ-OTEG), using only direct writing methods, embedding the thermoelectric legs within a plastic substrate through a combination of direct laser writing and inkjet printing techniques. Employing PEDOT:PSS for the p-type legs and a doped fullerene derivative for the n-type ones, we demonstrate a μ-OTEG with power density of 30.5 nW/cm2 under small thermal gradients, proving the concrete possibility of achieving power requirements of low-power, distributed sensing applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104983
Number of pages8
JournalNano energy
Publication statusPublished - Sep-2020


  • Integrated mu-OTEG
  • Flexible OTEG
  • Embedded OTEG
  • Fs-laser micromachining
  • Cone-shaped cavities
  • Inkjet-printing

Cite this