Functionally Heterogenous Macrophage Subsets in the Pathogenesis of Giant Cell Arteritis: Novel Targets for Disease Monitoring and Treatment

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Abstract

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous large-vessel vasculitis that affects adults above 50 years of age. In GCA, circulating monocytes are recruited to the inflamed arteries. With cues from the vascular microenvironment, they differentiate into macrophages and play important roles in the pathogenesis of GCA via pro-inflammatory cytokine production and vascular remodeling. However, a deeper understanding of macrophage heterogeneity in GCA pathogenesis is needed to assist the development of novel diagnostic tools and targeted therapies. Here, we review the current knowledge on macrophage heterogeneity and diverse functions of macrophage subsets in the pathogenesis of GCA. We next discuss the possibility to exploit their heterogeneity as a source of novel biomarkers and as targets for nuclear imaging. Finally, we discuss novel macrophage-targeted therapies and future directions for targeting these cells in GCA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4958
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume10
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26-Oct-2021

Keywords

  • giant cell arteritis
  • macrophages
  • imaging
  • biomarkers
  • LARGE-VESSEL INFLAMMATION
  • POLYMYALGIA-RHEUMATICA
  • DIAGNOSTIC-ACCURACY
  • PERIPHERAL-BLOOD
  • SENESCENT CELLS
  • IN-VIVO
  • EXPRESSION
  • TOCILIZUMAB
  • INVOLVEMENT
  • ASSOCIATION

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