General Movement Assessment from videos of computed 3D infant body models is equally effective compared to conventional RGB video rating

A Sebastian Schroeder*, Nikolas Hesse, Raphael Weinberger, Uta Tacke, Lucia Gerstl, Anne Hilgendorff, Florian Heinen, Michael Arens, Linze J Dijkstra, Sergi Pujades Rocamora, Michael J Black, Christoph Bodensteiner, Mijna Hadders-Algra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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BACKGROUND: General Movement Assessment (GMA) is a powerful tool to predict Cerebral Palsy (CP). Yet, GMA requires substantial training challenging its broad implementation in clinical routine. This inspired a world-wide quest for automated GMA.

AIMS: To test whether a low-cost, marker-less system for three-dimensional motion capture from RGB depth sequences using a whole body infant model may serve as the basis for automated GMA.

STUDY DESIGN: Clinical case study at an academic neurodevelopmental outpatient clinic.

SUBJECTS: Twenty-nine high risk infants were assessed at their clinical follow-up at 2-4 month corrected age (CA). Their neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed regularly up to 12-31 months CA.

OUTCOME MEASURES: GMA according to Hadders-Algra by a masked GMA-expert of conventional and computed 3D body model ("SMIL motion") videos of the same GMs. Agreement between both GMAs was tested using dichotomous and graded scaling with Kappa and intraclass correlations, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity to predict CP at ≥12 months CA were assessed.

RESULTS: Agreement of the two GMA ratings was moderate-good for GM-complexity (κ = 0.58; ICC = 0.874 [95%CI 0.730; 0.941]) and substantial-good for fidgety movements (FMs; Kappa = 0.78, ICC = 0.926 [95%CI 0.843; 0.965]). Five children were diagnosed with CP (four bilateral, one unilateral CP). The GMs of the child with unilateral CP were twice rated as mildly abnormal with FMs. GM-complexity and somewhat less FMs, of both conventional and SMIL motion videos predicted bilateral CP comparably to published literature.

CONCLUSIONS: Our computed infant 3D full body model is an attractive starting point for automated GMA in infants at risk of CP.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104967
Number of pages8
JournalEarly Human Development
Early online date15-Apr-2020
Publication statusPublished - May-2020


  • General Movement Assessment (GMA)
  • High risk infants
  • Early diagnosis
  • Fidgety
  • Automated motion analysis
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Kinect
  • RISK

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