Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

Nils Krone, Nicole Reisch, Jan Idkowiak, Vivek Dhir, Hannah E. Ivison, Beverly A. Hughes, Ian T. Rose, Donna M. O'Neil, Raymon Vijzelaar, Matthew J. Smith, Fiona MacDonald, Trevor R. Cole, Nicolai Adolphs, John S. Barton, Edward M. Blair, Stephen R. Braddock, Felicity Collins, Deborah L. Cragun, Mehul T. Dattani, Ruth DayShelley Dougan, Miriam Feist, Michael E. Gottschalk, John W. Gregory, Michaela Haim, Rachel Harrison, Ann Haskins Olney, Berthold P. Hauffa, Peter C. Hindmarsh, Robert J. Hopkin, Petr E. Jira, Marlies Kempers, Michiel N. Kerstens, Mohamed M. Khalifa, Birgit Koehler, Dominique Maiter, Shelly Nielsen, Stephen M. O'Riordan, Christian L. Roth, Kate P. Shane, Martin Silink, Nike M. M. L. Stikkelbroeck, Elizabeth Sweeney, Maria Szarras-Czapnik, John R. Waterson, Lori Williamson, Michaela F. Hartmann, Norman F. Taylor, Stefan A. Wudy, Ewa M. Malunowicz, Cedric H. L. Shackleton, Wiebke Arlt*, M.J. Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)


Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available.

Objective: The objective of the study was to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in a large PORD cohort.

Design: The design of the study was the clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 30 PORD patients from 11 countries.

Results: We identified 23 P450 oxidoreductase (POR) mutations (14 novel) including an exonic deletion and a partial duplication detected by MLPA. Only 22% of unrelated patients carried homozygous POR mutations. p.A287P was the most common mutation (43% of unrelated alleles); no other hot spot was identified. Urinary steroid profiling showed characteristic PORD metabolomes with variable impairment of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. Short cosyntropin testing revealed adrenal insufficiency in 89%. DSD was present in 15 of 1846, XX and seven of 1246,XY individuals. Homozygosity for p.A287P was invariably associated with 46, XX DSD but normal genitalia in 46, XY individuals. The majority of patients with mild to moderate skeletal malformations, assessed by a novel scoring system, were compound heterozygous for missense mutations, whereas nearly all patients with severe malformations carried a major loss-of-function defect on one of the affected alleles.

Conclusions: We report clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings in a large PORD cohort and show that MLPA is a useful addition to POR mutation analysis. Homozygosity for the most frequent mutation in Caucasians, p.A287P, allows for prediction of genital phenotype and moderate malformations. Adrenal insufficiency is frequent, easily overlooked, but readily detected by cosyntropin testing. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97: E257-E267, 2012)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E257-E267
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb-2012


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