Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

J Lelieveld*, H Berresheim, S Borrmann, P J Crutzen, F J Dentener, H Fischer, J Feichter, P J Flatau, J Heland, R Holzinger, R Korrmann, M G Lawrence, Z Levin, K M Markowicz, N Mihalopoulos, A Minikin, V Ramanathan, M De Reus, G J Roelofs, H A ScheerenJ Sciare, H Schlager, M Schultz, P Siegmund, B Steil, E G Stephanou, P Stier, M Traub, C Warneke, J Williams, H Ziereis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

793 Citations (Scopus)


The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)794-799
Number of pages6
Issue number5594
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Aerosols
  • Air Pollutants
  • Air Pollution
  • Asia
  • Atmosphere
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Climate
  • Europe
  • Mediterranean Region
  • North America
  • Ozone
  • Weather


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