Gross motor function in children with spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment: A comparison between outcomes of the original and the Cerebral Visual Impairment adapted Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88-CVI)

M. Salavati*, E. A. A. Rameckers, A. Waninge, W. P. Krijnen, B. Steenbergen, C. P. van der Schans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure 88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version.

Method: The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n = 16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks. A paediatric physical therapist familiar with the child assessed both tests in random order. The GMFCS level, mental development and age at testing were also collected. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two different measurements (the original and adapted GMFM-88) on a single sample, (the same child with CP and CVI; p <0.05).

Results: The comparison between scores on the original and adapted GMFM-88 in all children with CP and CVI showed a positive difference in percentage score on at least one of the five dimensions and positive percentage scores for the two versions differed on all five dimensions for fourteen children.

For six children a difference was seen in four dimensions and in 10 children difference was present in three dimensions (GMFM dimension A, B&C or C, D & E) (p <0.001). The adapted GMFM-88 provides a better estimate of gross motor function per se in children with CP and CVI that is not adversely impacted by their visual problems. On the basis of these findings, we recommend using the adapted GMFM-88 to measure gross motor functioning in children with CP and CVI. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)269-276
Number of pages8
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Publication statusPublished - Jan-2017


  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Cerebral Visual Impairment
  • Children
  • GMFM-88
  • GMFM-88-CVI
  • PEDI

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