BACKGROUND: Since evidence-based dietary guidelines are lacking for IBD patients, they tend to follow "unguided" dietary habits; potentially leading to nutritional deficiencies and detrimental effects on disease course. Therefore, we compared dietary intake of IBD patients with controls.
METHODS: Dietary intake of macronutrients and 25 food groups of 493 patients (207 UC, 286 CD), and 1291 controls was obtained via a food frequency questionnaire.
RESULTS: 38.6% of patients in remission had protein intakes below the recommended 0.8 g/kg and 86.7% with active disease below the recommended 1.2 g/kg. Multinomial logistic regression, corrected for age, gender and BMI, showed that (compared to controls) UC patients consumed more meat and spreads, but less alcohol, breads, coffee and dairy; CD patients consumed more non-alcoholic drinks, potatoes, savoury snacks and sugar and sweets but less alcohol, dairy, nuts, pasta and prepared meals. Patients with active disease consumed more meat, soup and sugar and sweets but less alcohol, coffee, dairy, prepared meals and rice; patients in remission consumed more potatoes and spreads but less alcohol, breads, dairy, nuts, pasta and prepared meals.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients avoiding potentially favourable foods and gourmandizing potentially unfavourable foods are of concern. Special attention is needed for protein intake in the treatment of these patients.
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Dietary assessment
- Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)
- Multinomial logistic regression analysis