Objective In patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), data are lacking on characteristics and severity of hallucinations in modalities other than the auditory (verbal) type. The same applies to relationships between hallucinations and the severity of depression, anxiety, schizotypy, and loneliness. Methods In 60 female patients with BPD (37 also with hallucinations), this cross-sectional study explored characteristics and severity of (i) hallucinations and (ii) schizotypal features, (iii) severity of depression and anxiety, and (iv) loneliness, and the relationships between hallucinations and the other characteristics. Results In patients with hallucinations, 80% experienced hallucinations in more than one modality; in the different modalities, the characteristics of the hallucinations were similar. The criteria for loneliness were fulfilled in 81% and 48% of patients with and without hallucinations. Compared to patients with BPD without hallucinations, the presence of hallucinations was associated with higher scores for depression, anxiety, loneliness, and schizotypy. Furthermore, the severity of hallucinations showed a positive correlation with the severity of loneliness and schizotypy. Conclusion Patients with BPD experienced hallucinations with characteristics similar to the more frequently studied auditory (verbal) hallucinations. Higher scores for schizotypy and loneliness indicate that patients with hallucinations had more characteristics of cluster A personality disorders.
- PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS
- CHILDHOOD TRAUMA