BACKGROUND: The national burden of human immunodeficiency virus treatment failure and associated factors in the Ethiopian context is required to provide evidence towards a renewed ambitious future goal.
METHODS: We accessed Ethiopian Universities' online repository library, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to get the research articles. We run I-squared statistics to see heterogeneity. Publication bias was checked by using Egger's regression test. The pooled prevalence was estimated using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. We employed the sensitivity analysis to see the presence of outlier result in the included studies.
RESULTS: The overall human immunodeficiency treatment failure was 15.9% (95% confidence interval: 11.6-20.1%). Using immunological, virological, and clinical definition, human immunodeficiency treatment failure was 10.2% (95% confidence interval: 6.9-13.6%), 5.6% (95% confidence interval: 2.9-8.3%), and 6.3% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.0%), respectively. The pooled effects of World Health Organization clinical stage III/IV (Adjusted Odd Ratio = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.6), presence of opportunistic infections (Adjusted Odd Ratio = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4), and poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (Adjusted Odd Ratio = 8.1; 95% CI: 4.3-11.8) on HIV treatment failure were estimated.
CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus treatment failure in Ethiopia found to be high. Being on advanced clinical stage, presence of opportunistic infections, and poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy were the contributing factors of human immunodeficiency virus treatment failure. Human immunodeficiency virus intervention programs need to address the specified contributing factors of human immunodeficiency virus treatment failure. Behavioral intervention to prevent treatment interruption is required to sustain human immunodeficiency virus treatment adherence.
PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: It has been registered in the PROSPERO database with a registration number of CRD42018100254.