Liver regeneration is stimulated by blood platelets, but the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unexplored. Although platelets are anucleate, they do contain coding or regulatory RNAs that can be functional within the platelet or, after transfer, in other cell types. Here, we show that platelets and platelet-like particles (PLPs) derived from the megakaryoblastic cell line MEG-01 stimulate proliferation of HepG2 cells. Platelets or PLPs were internalized within 1 hour by HepG2 cells and accumulated in the perinuclear region of the hepatocyte. Platelet internalization also occurred following a partial hepatectomy in mice. Annexin A5 blocked platelet internalization and HepG2 proliferation. We labeled total RNA of MEG-01 cells by incorporation of 5-ethynyluridine (EU) and added EU-labeled PLPs to HepG2 cells. PLP-derived RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of the HepG2 cell. We next generated PLPs containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged actin messenger RNA. PLPs did not synthesize GFP, but in coculture with HepG2 cells, significant GFP protein synthesis was demonstrated. RNA-degrading enzymes partly blocked the stimulating effect of platelets on hepatocyte proliferation. Thus, platelets stimulate hepatocyte proliferation via a mechanism that is dependent on platelet internalization by hepatocytes followed by functional transfer of RNA stored in the anucleate platelet. This mechanism may contribute to platelet-mediated liver regeneration.
- INDEPENDENT THROMBIN GENERATION
- PROMOTE LIVER-REGENERATION
- RECOMBINANT FACTOR VIIA
- ANUCLEATE PLATELETS