How Clinical Integration of Pharmacists in General Practice has Impact on Medication Therapy Management: A Theory-oriented Evaluation

Ankie C M Hazen, AA de Bont, A. J. Leendertse, DLM Zwart , NJ de Wit, Johan de Gier, Marcel L. Bouvy

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Background: Data on medication-related hospital admissions suggest that there is an opportunity for improved pharmaceutical care. Hence, concerns about medication-related hospital admissions is a driver to extend and integrate the role of community pharmacists in general practice.

Aim: The aim of this paper is to give a systematic description of 1) what integrating a non-dispensing pharmacist (NDP) in general practice entails and 2) how this integrated care model is expected to contribute to patients’ medication therapy management.

Methods: Based on ethnographic data collected by NDPs in general practices in the Netherlands, we conducted a theory evaluation.

Results: The impact of NDPs providing integrated care can be explained by 1) the specific expertise NDPs bring into general practice and the tailored solutions they offer for individual patients, including deviation from medical protocols when necessary, 2) the reconciliation of interprofessional tensions caused by overlapping tasks with practice nurses, which results in a distinct patient population, 3) the conduct of clinical medication reviews aligned to the work processes of the GP practice and 4) the integration of quality management work into clinical work.

Conclusion: The success of integrated pharmaceutical care is dependent on how NDPs collaborate with GPs and practice nurses. NDPs need to mobilize clinical pharmaceutical expertise into general practice. Yet, integrating quality management into clinical work is key to integrate pharmaceutical care. Paradoxically, full integration requires from NDPs to develop a distinct role in general practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Integrated Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2-Jan-2019


  • clinical pharmacist
  • integrated care
  • new roles
  • primary care
  • medication review

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