How to improve cytologic screening for endocervical adenocarcinoma?

ME Boon*, E Ouwerkerk-Noordam, AWFM van Leeuwen, LP Kok, C van Haaften-Day

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    Aim: A retrospective study was undertaken to investigate how to improve the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in screening programs.

    Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 29 slides of women diagnosed with cancer but who had negative smears. The slides were subdivided in 12 smears taken less than one year before diagnosis by histology and 17 smears taken between one and 10 years prior to diagnosis. A hundred smears of healthy women were used for comparison. All smears were studied macroscopically after which both groups of smears were scanned by the Neural Network Scanner (NNS). Differences between groups were studied for statistical significance using Pearson's Chi-squared test.

    Findings: The macroscopic parameter of these smears found to be present most frequently was a heavy admixture, of blood. The presence of blood (lysed or not) in the smears was equally consistently highlighted by the NNS. Statistical significance of the association of this parameter, with the presence of cancer, was demonstrated.

    Conclusion: The awareness of blood as a background feature of adenocarcinoma of the cervix will help to select cases needing special attention. These difficult bloody smears, studied by light microscopy and by NNS images can also be selected for additional MiB-1 staining. With this approach, blood in smears, otherwise frequently leading to a compromise of classification, can become a blessing in disguise. The diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in screening smears will therefore be improved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)481-485
    Number of pages5
    JournalEuropean Journal of Gynaecological Oncology
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2002


    • adenocarcinoma of the endocervix
    • bloody
    • NNS
    • PAPNET
    • CERVIX

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