Human Smuggling Networks Operating Between Middle East and the European Union: Evidence from Iranian, Iraqi and Afghani Migrants in the Netherlands

Research output: Working paperAcademic


Due to its challenging nature of traditional perspectives, human smuggling is always on the agenda of decision makers, politicians, media and academia. This article focuses on human smuggling between Middle East into the European Union, especially the Netherlands. Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan are the chosen countries from the region since there are increasing numbers of asylum seekers in Europe. The article briefly looks at different perspectives in the literature and then concentrates on the involvement of transnational organized crime in the process of human smuggling. Then it will try to analyze organized crime perspective by network analysis.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherCentre on Migration, Citizenship and Development (COMCAD), Bielefeld University
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameCOMCAD Working Papers
PublisherCentre on Migration, Citizenship and Development

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