Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) who were treated with potentially nephrotoxic therapies.
Methods: In the Dutch Childhood Cancer Survivor Study LATER cohort part 2 renal study, 1024 CCS ≥5 years after diagnosis, aged ≥18 years at study participation, treated between 1963 and 2001 with nephrectomy, abdominal radiotherapy, total body irradiation (TBI), cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, high-dose cyclophosphamide (≥1 g/m2 per single dose or ≥10 g/m2 total) or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation participated and 500 controls from Lifelines. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure (BP) (mmHg) systolic ≥140 and/or diastolic ≥90 or receiving medication for diagnosed hypertension. At the study visit, the CKD-EPI 2012 equation including creatinine and cystatin C was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Multivariable regression analyses were used.
For ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), hypertension was defined as BP daytime: systolic ≥135 and/or diastolic ≥85, night time: systolic ≥120 and/or diastolic ≥70, 24-h: systolic ≥130 and/or diastolic ≥80. Outcomes were masked hypertension (MH), white coat hypertension and abnormal nocturnal dipping (aND).
Results: Median age at cancer diagnosis was 4.7 years (interquartile range, IQR 2.4–9.2), at study 32.5 years (IQR 27.7–38.0) and follow-up 25.5 years (IQR 21.4–30.3). The prevalence of hypertension was comparable in CCS (16.3%) and controls (18.2%). In 12% of CCS and 17.8% of controls, hypertension was undiagnosed. A decreased GFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was associated with hypertension in CCS (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4–8.5). Risk factors were abdominal radiotherapy ≥20 Gy and TBI. The ABPM-pilot study (n = 77) showed 7.8% MH, 2.6% white coat hypertension and 20.8% aND.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was comparable among CCS who were treated with potentially nephrotoxic therapies compared to controls, some of which were undiagnosed. Risk factors were abdominal radiotherapy ≥20 Gy and TBI. Hypertension and decreased GFR were associated with CCS. ABPM identified MH and a ND.
- Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
- Childhood cancer survivor
- Late effects