Hypomagnesemia in persons with type 1 diabetes: associations with clinical parameters and oxidative stress

Peter R. van Dijk*, F. Waanders, Jiedong Qiu, Hannah H. R. de Boer, H. van Goor, H. J. G. Bilo

*Corresponding author for this work

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Among persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) low concentrations of magnesium have been reported. Previous (small) studies also suggested a relation of hypomagnesemia with (poor) glycaemic control and complications. We aimed to investigate the magnitude of hypomagnesemia and the associations between magnesium with parameters of routine T1DM care in a population of unselected outpatients.


As part of a prospective cohort study, initially designed to measure quality of life and oxidative stress, data from 207 patients with a mean age of 45 [standard deviation (SD) 12] years, 58% male, diabetes duration 22 [interquartile range (IQR) 16, 31] years and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 60 (SD 11) mmol/mol [7.6 (SD 1.0)%] were examined. Hypomagnesemia was defined as a concentration below Results:

Mean magnesium concentration was 0.78 (SD 0.05) mmol/l. A deficiency was present in 4.3% of participants. Among these persons, mean concentration was 0.66 (SD 0.03) mmol/l. There was no correlation between magnesium and HbA1c at baseline (r = -0.014, p = 0.843). In multivariable analysis, free thiols (reflecting the degree of oxidative stress) were significantly and negatively associated with magnesium concentrations.


In this cohort of T1DM outpatients, the presence of hypomagnesemia was infrequent and, if present, relative mild. Magnesium was not associated with glycaemic control nor with presence of micro- and macrovascular complications. Although these results need confirmation, in particular the negative association of magnesium with free thiols, this suggests that hypomagnesemia is not a relevant topic in routine care for people with T1DM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2042018820980240
Number of pages9
JournalTherapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2020


  • glycaemia
  • insulin
  • magnesium
  • oxidative stress
  • type 1 diabetes

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