Aims To examine sex differences in clinical characteristics, echocardiographic features, quality of life and 1-year death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization outcomes in patients with/without diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods and results Utilizing the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in HF (ASIAN-HF) registry, 5255 patients (mean age 59.6 +/- 13.1, 78% men) with symptomatic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were stratified by DM status to address the research aims. Despite similar prevalence of DM between Asian men (43%) and women (42%), the odds of DM increased at lower body mass index in women vs. men (>= 23 vs. >= 27.5 kg/m(2), P-interaction = 0.014). DM was more strongly related to chronic kidney disease in women vs. men [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.57 vs. OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.56, P-interaction = 0.009]. Sex also modified the relationship between DM and left ventricular geometry (P-interaction = 0.003), whereby DM was associated with amore concentric left ventricular geometry in women than men. Women had lower quality of life than men (P <0.001), in both DM and non-DM groups. DM was associated with worse composite outcomes at 1 year in women vs. men [hazard ratio (HR) 1.79, 95% CI 1.24-2.60 vs. HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.56; P-interaction = 0.005).
Conclusions Asian women with HFrEF were more likely to have DM despite a lean body mass index, a greater burden of chronic kidney disease and more concentric left ventricular geometry, compared to men. Furthermore, DM confers worse quality of life, irrespective of sex, and a greater risk of adverse outcomes in women than men. These data underscore the need for sex-specific approaches to diabetes in patients with HF.
- Heart failure
- Sex differences
- SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH