In de ban van een beter verleden: Het Nederlandse fascisme 1923-1945

Willy Sjoerd Huberts

    Research output: ThesisThesis fully internal (DIV)

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    'Under the spell of a better past' offers a complete survey of the rise, the flourishing and fall of almost all (over 60) fascist political parties in the Netherlands during the period 1923-1945. It discusses the entire spectrum: from the foundation in 1923 of the Union of Actualists to the fall of the National-Socialist Movement in 1945. Between the World Wars, why did many tens of thousands of Dutch citizens consider themselves fascists? For a good answer, the author focuses on the period 1880-1920, when due to multiple scientific and social innovations, society trembled on its foundations. Those innovations provided the breeding ground for the discontent, the discomfort and displeasure on which fascism could thrive.

    The years 1918-1923 are discussed as an 'introductory period'. Dutch fascism arose from persons, parties and currents. In general these were anti-democratic, authoritarian, anti-marxist, anti-anarchist, reactionary-conservative, and strongly revolutionary-nationalist. Next, attention is paid to the common ground between conservatism, fascism and national-socialism. Here, a closer look is taken at the evolution many a Dutch fascist underwent (from conservative via fascist to national-socialist). The author investigates why Dutch fascism ultimately failed in almost all its aims. For unlike Italian and German fascism, Dutch fascism never succeeded in positioning itself as a broad politico-social movement.

    Dutch fascism is studied on the basis of four meaningful components: revolution, palingenesis (rebirth), populism and ultra-nationalism. Regarding the component 'revolution', the study shows that it deviates from generic fascism. The case of Dutch fascism proves that political parties can be fascist, though the form in which they do this is not revolutionary – a so far unknown fact.
    Original languageDutch
    QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
    Awarding Institution
    • University of Groningen
    • van Berkel, Klaas, Supervisor
    • Voerman, Gerrit, Supervisor
    Award date9-Mar-2017
    Place of Publication[Groningen]
    Print ISBNs978-90-367-9462-6
    Electronic ISBNs978-90-367-9461-9
    Publication statusPublished - 2017

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