BACKGROUND: Many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) may present as sudden infant death (SID). Nowadays, increasing numbers of patients with IEMs are identified pre-symptomatically by population neonatal bloodspot screening (NBS) programmes. However, some patients escape early detection because their symptoms and signs start before NBS test results become available, they even die even before the sample for NBS has been drawn or because there are IEMs which are not included in the NBS programmes.
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: This was a comprehensive systematic literature review to identify all IEMs associated with SID, including their treatability and detectability by NBS technologies. Reye syndrome (RS) was included in the search strategy because this condition can be considered a possible pre-stage of SID in a continuum of aggravating symptoms.
RESULTS: 43 IEMs were identified that were associated with SID and/or RS. Of these, (1) 26 can already present during the neonatal period, (2) treatment is available for at least 32, and (3) 26 can currently be identified by the analysis of acylcarnitines and amino acids in dried bloodspots (DBS).
CONCLUSION: We advocate an extensive analysis of amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood/plasma/DBS and urine for all children who died suddenly and/or unexpectedly, including neonates in whom blood had not yet been drawn for the routine NBS test. The application of combined metabolite screening and DNA-sequencing techniques would facilitate fast identification and maximal diagnostic yield. This is important information for clinicians who need to maintain clinical awareness and decision-makers to improve population NBS programmes.
- Neonatal screening
- Inborn error of metabolism
- Mitochondria fatty acid oxidation
- Reye syndrome
- Sudden infant death
- Metabolic autopsy
- TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY