Incidence and severity of root resorption in orthodontically moved premolars in dogs

J.C. Maltha*, E.J. van Leeuwen, G.E.H.M. Dijkman, A.M. Kuijpers-Jagtman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To study treatment-related factors for external root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

Design: An experimental animal study.

Setting and sample population: Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Twenty-four young adult beagle dogs.

Experimental variable: Mandibular premolars were bodily moved with continuous or intermittent controlled orthodontic forces of 10, 25, 50, 100, or 200 cN according to standardized protocols. At different points in time histomorphometry was performed to determine the severity of root resorption.

Outcome measure: Prevalence of root resorptions, defined as microscopically visible resorption lacunae in the dentin. Severity of resorption was defined by the length, relative length, depth, and surface area of each resorption area.

Results: The incidence of root resorption increased with the duration of force application. After 14-17 weeks of force application root resorption was found at 94% of the root surfaces at pressure sides. The effect of force magnitude on the severity of root resorption was not statistically significant. The severity of root resorption was highly related to the force regimen. Continuous forces caused significantly more severe root resorption than intermittent forces. A strong correlation (0.60 < r < 0.68) was found between the amount of tooth movement and the severity of root resorption.

Conclusions: Root resorption increases with the duration of force application. The more teeth are displaced, the more root resorption will occur. Intermittent forces cause less severe root resorption than continuous forces, and force magnitude is probably not decisive for root resorption.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-121
Number of pages7
JournalOrthodontics & craniofacial research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May-2004
Externally publishedYes


  • orthodontics
  • Animal study
  • Dog
  • force level

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