Incorporation of LpxL1, a detoxified lipopolysaccharide adjuvant, in influenza H5N1 virosomes increases vaccine immunogenicity

J. J. C. de Vries, L. Bungener, W. ter Veer, L. van Alphen, R. van der Ley, J. Wilschut, A. Huckriede*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The increasing number of human influenza H5N1 infections accentuates the need for the development of H5N1 vaccine candidates to prevent a potential influenza pandemic. The use of adjuvants in such vaccines can contribute significantly to antigen dose-sparing. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of the non toxic Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide analog LpxL1 to function as an adjuvant for an influenza H5N1 virosomal vaccine. Inactivated influenza H5N1 virus (NIBRG-14) was used to construct virosomes (reconstituted virus envelopes) with LpxL1 incorporated in the virosomal membrane thus combining the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) antigen and the adjuvant in the same particle. Mice were immunized in a one- or two-dose immunization regimen with H5N1 virosomes with or without incorporated LpxL1 After a single immunization, H5N1 virosomes with incorporated LpxL1 induced significantly enhanced H5N1-specific total IgG titers as compared to non-adjuvanted virosomes but hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers remained low. In the two-dose immunization regimen, LpxL1-modified H5N1 virosomes induced HI titers above 40 which were significantly higher than those obtained with non-adjuvanted virosomes. Incorporation of LpxL1 had little effect on virosome-induced IgG1 levels, but significantly increased IgC2a levels in both the one- and two-close immunization regimen. Compared to non-adjuvanted virosomes, LpxL1-modified virosomes induced similar numbers of IFN gamma-producing T cells but decreased numbers of IL-4-producing T cells irrespective of the number of immunizations. We conclude that LpxL1 incorporated in H5N1 influenza virosomes has the capacity to function as a potent adjuvant particularly Stimulating Th1-type immune reactions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)947-955
Number of pages9
JournalVaccine
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5-Feb-2009

Keywords

  • Adjuvant
  • Influenza
  • H5N1
  • Vaccine
  • Virosomes
  • LPS
  • MONOPHOSPHORYL-LIPID-A
  • PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
  • ANTIBODY-RESPONSES
  • VIRUS ENVELOPES
  • DENDRITIC CELLS
  • IMMUNITY
  • MICE
  • ANTIGENS
  • ASSAY
  • TOLL-LIKE-RECEPTOR-4

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