A major contributor to biomaterial associated infection (BAI) is Staphylococcus aureus. This pathogen produces a protective biofilm, making eradication difficult. Biofilms are composed of bacteria encapsulated in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) comprising polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA). S. aureus also produces micrococcal nuclease (MN), an endonuclease which contributes to biofilm composition and dispersion, mainly expressed by nuc1. MN expression can be modulated by sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials. We investigated the relation between the biofilm and MN expression and the impact of the application of antimicrobial pressure on this relation. Planktonic and biofilm cultures of three S. aureus strains, including a nuc1 deficient strain, were cultured under antimicrobial pressure. Results do not confirm earlier findings that MN directly influences total biomass of the biofilm but indicated that nuc1 deletion stimulates the polysaccharide production per CFU in the biofilm in in vitro biofilms. Though antimicrobial pressure of certain antibiotics resulted in significantly increased quantities of polysaccharides per CFU, this did not coincide with significantly reduced MN activity. Erythromycin and resveratrol significantly reduced MN production per CFU but did not affect total biomass or biomass/CFU. Reduction of MN production may assist in the eradication of biofilms by the host immune system in clinical situations.
- EXTRACELLULAR NUCLEASE
- 2-COMPONENT SYSTEM