Influence of the stoichiometry of tin-based 2D/3D perovskite active layers on solar cell performance

Shuyan Shao*, Maykel Nijenhuis, Jingjin Dong, Simon Kahmann, Gert H. ten Brink, Giuseppe Portale, Maria Antonietta Loi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

2D/3D mixed tin perovskites have the advantages of high crystallinity and preferential orientation compared to pure 3D tin perovskite. However, solar cells based on 2D/3D mixed tin perovskites are still limited by low power conversion efficiency (PCE) when compared to their lead-based counterparts. It is essential to gain deeper insight into the factors that limit the performance of these solar cells in order to further improve them. In this work, we demonstrate that the starting stoichiometry of 2D/3D (PEA(0.08)FA(x)SnI(3)) tin perovskite films influences their crystallization and photophysical properties as well as the solar cell performance. The reference 2D/3D film (x = 0.92, where x refers to the stoichiometry of the precursors) is highly crystalline with the 3D phase preferentially oriented and a small amount of 2D phase located at the bottom of the film. The reference solar cell delivers a PCE of about 8.0%. 2D/3D films with even higher FA concentration (x > 1.0) mainly consist of poorly crystalline and randomly oriented 3D phases, with much higher trap density compared to the reference film. The corresponding solar cells therefore suffer from severe trap-assisted charge recombination, and deliver a poor PCE of

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10095-10103
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Volume9
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30-Mar-2021

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