Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite

Martin Foltz*, Jeroen Maljaars, Ewoud A. H. Schuring, Robert J. P. van der Wal, Theo Boer, Guus S. M. Duchateau, Harry P. F. Peters, Frans Stellaard, Ad A. Masclee

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Foltz M, Maljaars J, Schuring EA, van der Wal RJ, Boer T, Duchateau GS, Peters HP, Stellaard F, Masclee AA. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G982-G991, 2009. First published March 26, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90579.2008.-Intestinal intubation studies have demonstrated that lipids induce satiety, but the contribution of lipid processing by the stomach on satiety remains poorly understood. In this explorative, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study we tested whether delayed lipid absorption, increased cholecystokinin (CCK), decelerated gastric emptying (GE), and increased satiety can be achieved by controlling lipid distribution in the stomach. Six healthy men were intubated nasogastrically. Two treatments were performed and repeated in duplicate. In the oil-on-top treatment (OT), subjects received a fat-free liquid meal (LM, 325 ml, 145 kcal) followed by intragastric infusion of 4 g of high-oleic-acid rapeseed oil (4.6 ml, 36 kcal) labeled with 77 mg glyceryl-[C-13] trioleate. In the emulsion treatment (EM, control), 4 g of labeled rapeseed oil was incorporated into the LM (325 ml, 181 kcal); 4.6 ml of saline was infused as a control. In OT and EM a second LM was consumed at time t = 270 min. Plasma C-13-C18:1, CCK and satiety were measured over 480 min. GE was determined by the paracetamol absorption test. OT delayed oleic acid absorption shown by an increased lag time of absorption (EM: 37 +/- 7 min; OT: 75 +/- 10 min; P +/- 0.01) and time at maximum concentration (EM: 162 +/- 18 min; OT: 280 +/- 33 min; P = 0.01). OT released more CCK than EM (P = 0.03), including increased CCK after the second meal. OT accelerated initial GE until 30 min postprandial. OT showed a tendency (P = 0.06) to suppress hunger and increase satiety and fullness 120-270 min postprandially. The results demonstrate that low amounts of lipids, when separated from the aqueous phase of a meal, delay lipid absorption and increase CCK. An escalating-dose study should determine whether this could have implications for the development of weight-control foods.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)G982-G991
    Number of pages10
    JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - May-2009


    • hunger
    • satiety
    • oleic acid
    • paracetamol absorption test
    • liquid meal

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