Introduction of the Grayscale Median for Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of the Transplanted Kidney

Camilo G Sotomayor, Stan Benjamens, Hildebrand Dijkstra, Derya Yakar, Cyril Moers, Stephan J L Bakker, Robert A Pol*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Ultrasound examination is advised for early post-kidney transplant assessment. Grayscale median (GSM) quantification is novel in the kidney transplant field, with no systematic assessment previously reported. In this prospective cohort study, we measured the post-operative GSM in a large cohort of adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR) who consecutively underwent Doppler ultrasound directly after transplantation (within 24 h), compared it with GSM in nontransplanted patients, and investigated its association with baseline and follow-up characteristics. B-mode images were used to calculate the GSM in KTR and compared with GSM data in nontransplanted patients, as simulated from summary statistics of the literature using a Mersenne twister algorithm. The association of GSM with baseline and 1-year follow-up characteristics were studied by means of linear regression analyses. In 282 KTR (54 ± 15 years old, 60% male), the median (IQR) GSM was 55 (45-69), ranging from 22 to 124 (coefficient of variation = 7.4%), without differences by type of donation (p = 0.28). GSM in KTR was significantly higher than in nontransplanted patients (p < 0.001), and associated with systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, and donor age (std. β = 0.12, -0.20, and 0.13, respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Higher early post-kidney transplant GSM was not associated with 1-year post-kidney transplant function parameters (e.g., measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate). The data provided in this study could be used as first step for further research on the application of early postoperative ultrasound in KTR.

Original languageEnglish
Article number390
Number of pages12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 25-Feb-2021


  • ultrasound
  • grayscale median
  • kidney transplant
  • kidney function
  • graft function
  • RISK

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