Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have now correlated hundreds of genetic variants with complex genetic diseases and drug efficacy. Functional characterization of these factors remains challenging, particularly because of the lack of human model systems. Molecular and nanotechnological advances, in particular the ability to generate patient-specific PSC lines, differentiate them into diverse cell types, and seed and combine them on microfluidic chips, have led to the establishment of organ-on-a-chip (OoC) platforms that recapitulate organ biology. OoC technology thus provides unique personalized platforms for studying the effects of host genetics and environmental factors on organ physiology. In this review we describe the technology and provide examples of how OoCs may be used for disease modeling and pharmacogenetic research.