Aims Iron deficiency (ID) is common in heart failure (HF) patients and negatively impacts symptoms and prognosis. The aetiology of ID in HF is largely unknown. We studied determinants and the biomarker profile of ID in a large international HF cohort.
Methods and results We studied 2357 worsening HF patients from the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. ID was defined as transferrin saturation
Conclusion Our data suggest that the aetiology of ID in worsening HF is complex, multifactorial and seems to consist of a combination of reduced iron uptake (malnutrition, fluid overload), impaired iron storage (inflammation, chronic kidney disease), and iron loss (antiplatelets).
- Heart failure
- Iron deficiency
- Protein intake
- Fluid retention
- PROGNOSTIC IMPACT