Is there an optimal degree of correction for ankle varus deformity after supramalleolar osteotomy? A systematic review

Iris Beijk, Johannes Burgerhof, Astrid J. de Vries, Tom M. van Raaij*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Background: There is no consensus on the angle targeted for in varus ankle deformity after supramalleolar osteotomy (SMOT). The aim of this study was to investigate which obtained correction has the best clinical outcome after valgus SMOT. Methods: A systematic review according PRISMA guidelines was conducted with studies being eligible for inclusion when published in English, German or Dutch, patients older than 18 years at study entrance, primary or posttraumatic varus ankle osteoarthritis, using any valgus SMOT technique, describing radiological alignment and clinical outcome at baseline and after at least 12 months follow-up. Risk of bias was assessed using the McMaster University Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group quality assessment tool. The electronical databases PubMed, EMBASE and Cinahl were used as data sources. Included cohorts were categorized according to the mean obtained medial distal tibia angle (MDTA; ranged between 87° and 100°). A linear mixed effect model was used for individual patient data to assess the association between the MDTA and the (difference in) clinical outcome. Results: Thirty studies including 33 patient cohorts with 922 ankles were identified. At a mean follow-up of 4 years no differences in clinical outcome between correction categories were found. Individual data of 34 ankles showed no relationship between obtained MDTA and clinical outcome either. Conclusion: This review could not demonstrate an optimal degree of correction after valgus SMOT. Results were hampered by biased low quality studies and the widespread use of unreliable 2D alignment measures such as the MDTA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1139-1149
Number of pages11
JournalFoot and Ankle Surgery
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2022


  • Correction
  • MDTA
  • Optimal degree
  • Osteotomy
  • Supramalleolar
  • Valgus-type

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