Is Tourette's syndrome an autoimmune disease?

PJ Hoekstra*, CGM Kallenberg, J Korf, RB Minderaa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We provide a review of recent research findings which support the involvement of autoimmunity in childhood-onset tic disorders, in particular the presence of antineuronal autoantibodies, D8/17 B lymphocyte overexpression, a marker of chorea associated with streptococcal infection, and possible beneficial effects of immunomodulatory intervention. One of the most controversial areas in this field is the validity of the proposed PANDAS concept. Some researchers have delineated a putatively unique subgroup of patients, from the spectrum of illness encompassing Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), whose tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms are shown to arise in response to beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections. They designated it by the term pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Herein we additionally present pros and cons concerning the concept of PANDAS. Finally, recommendations for future research directions are given.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-445
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Psychiatry
Volume7
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Keywords

  • tics
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • autoimmunity
  • intravenous immunoglobulins
  • autoantibodies
  • plasmapheresis
  • tryptophan
  • childhood
  • OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
  • LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN D8/17
  • RHEUMATIC HEART-DISEASE
  • NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
  • STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
  • ANTINEURONAL ANTIBODIES
  • KYNURENINE PATHWAY
  • QUINOLINIC ACID
  • TIC DISORDERS
  • NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE

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