Keeping the driver in the loop in conditionally automated driving: A perception-action theory approach

J. Dillmann*, R. J. R. den Hartigh, C. M. Kurpiers, F. K. Raisch, D. de Waard, R. F. A. Cox

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
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In this paper we investigated if keeping the driver in the perception–action loop during automated driving can improve take-over behavior from conditionally automated driving. To meet this aim, we designed an experiment in which visual exposure (perception) and manual control exposure (action) were manipulated. In a dynamic driving simulator experiment, participants (n = 88) performed a non-driving related task either in a head-up display in the windshield (high visual exposure) or on a head-down display near the gear shift (low visual exposure). While driving, participants were either in an intermittent control-mode with four noncritical take-over situations (high manual control exposure), or in a continuous automation-mode throughout the ride (low manual control exposure). In all conditions, a critical take-over had to be carried out after an approximately 13 min ride. Measurements of take-over behavior showed that only high visual exposure had an effect on hands-on reaction time measurements. Both visual exposure and manual control exposure had small to medium sized main effects on time to system deactivation, the maximum velocity of the steering wheel, and the standard deviation of the steering wheel angle. The combined high visual – and high manual control exposure condition led to 0.55 s faster reaction time and 37% less steering variability in comparison to the worst case low visual – and low manual control exposure condition. Together, results corroborate that maintaining visual exposure and manual control exposure during automated driving can be efficacious and suggest that their positive effects are additive.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-62
Number of pages14
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Publication statusPublished - May-2021


  • Adaptive automation
  • Function allocation
  • Human-automation interaction
  • Perception-action
  • Vehicle automation

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