Learning collaboration at the primary-secondary care interface: a dual-method study to define design principles for interventions in postgraduate training programmes

Marijn Janssen*, Cornelia R.M.G. Fluit, Roel R. Lubbers, Sylvia A. Cornelissen, Jacqueline de Graaf, Nynke Scherpbier

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    Background: Collaboration between primary and secondary care (PSCC) is important to provide patient-centered care. Postgraduate training programmes should provide training to learn PSCC. With a design based research (DBR) approach design principles can be formulated for designing effective interventions in specific contexts. The aim of this study is to determine design principles for interventions aimed to learn PSCC in postgraduate training programmes.

    Methods: DBR is characterised by multi-method studies. We started with a literature review on learning collaboration between healthcare professionals from different disciplines within the same profession (intraprofessional) to extract preliminary design principles. These were used to inform and feed group discussions among stakeholders: trainees, supervisors and educationalists in primary and secondary care. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis to formulate design principles.

    Results: Eight articles were included in the review. We identified four preliminary principles to consider in the design of interventions: participatory design, work process involvement, personalised education and role models. We conducted three group discussions with in total eighteen participants. We formulated three design principles specific for learning PSCC in postgraduate training programmes: (1) The importance of interaction, being able to engage in a learning dialogue. (2) Facilitate that the learning dialogue concerns collaboration. (3) Create a workplace that facilitates engagement in a learning dialogue. In the last design principle we distinguished five subcategories: intervention emphasises the urge for PSCC and is based on daily practice, the presence of role models, the work context creates time for learning PSCC, learning PSCC is formalised in curricula and the presence of a safe learning environment.

    Conclusion: This article describes design principles for interventions in postgraduate training programmes with the aim to learn PSCC. Interaction is key in learning PSCC. This interaction should concern collaborative issues. Furthermore, it is essential to include the workplace in the intervention and make adjacent changes in the workplace when implementing interventions. The knowledge gathered in this study can be used to design interventions for learning PSCC. Evaluation of these interventions is needed to acquire more knowledge and adjust design principles when necessary.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number308
    Number of pages12
    JournalBMC Medical Education
    Publication statusPublished - 3-May-2023

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