AIMS: The COMPARE trial showed a small but significant beneficial effect of 3-year losartan treatment on aortic root dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, no significant effect was found on clinical endpoints, possibly due to a short follow-up period. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the long-term clinical outcomes after losartan treatment.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In the original COMPARE study (inclusion 2008-2009), adult patients with MFS (n = 233) were randomly allocated to either the angiotensin-II receptor blocker losartan® on top of regular treatment (β-blockers in 71% of the patients) or no additional medication. After the COMPARE trial period of 3 years, study subjects chose to continue their losartan medication or not. In a median follow-up period of 8 years, 75 patients continued losartan medication, whereas 78 patients, originally allocated to the control group, never used losartan after inclusion. No differences existed between baseline characteristics of the two groups except for age at inclusion [losartan 34 (interquartile range, IQR 26-43) years, control 41 (IQR 30-52) years; P = 0.031], and β-blocker use (losartan 81%, control 64%; P = 0.022). A pathological FBN1 mutation was present in 76% of patients and 58% of the patients were male. Clinical endpoints, defined as all-cause mortality, aortic dissection/rupture, elective aortic root replacement, reoperation, and vascular graft implantation beyond the aortic root, were compared between the two groups. A per-patient composite endpoint was also analysed. Five deaths, 14 aortic dissections, 23 aortic root replacements, 3 reoperations, and 3 vascular graft implantations beyond the aortic root occurred during follow-up. Except for aortic root replacement, all endpoints occurred in patients with an operated aortic root. Patients who used losartan during the entire follow-up period showed a reduced number of events compared to the control group (death: 0 vs. 5, P = 0.014; aortic dissection: 3 vs. 11, P = 0.013; elective aortic root replacement: 10 vs. 13, P = 0.264; reoperation: 1 vs. 2, P = 0.463; vascular graft implantations beyond the aortic root 0 vs. 3, P = 0.071; and composite endpoint: 14 vs. 26, P = 0.019). These results remained similar when corrected for age and β-blocker use in a multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest a clinical benefit of combined losartan and β-blocker treatment in patients with MFS.