Long-Term Halo Follow-Up Confirms Less Invasive Treatment of Low-Grade Cartilaginous Tumors with Radiofrequency Ablation to Be Safe and Effective

Hendricus Nijland*, Jelle Overbosch, Joris J. W. Ploegmakers, Thomas C. Kwee, Paul C. Jutte

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive alternative in the treatment of bone tumors. Long-term follow-up has not been described in current literature. Detailed analysis of mid- and long-term follow-up after RFA treatment for a cohort of patients with low-grade cartilaginous tumors (atypical cartilaginous tumors and enchondroma) was performed. The results, complications, and development of halo dimensions over time are presented. Methods: Data of all patients with an RFA procedure for an ACT between 2007-2018 were included. Ablation area is visible on baseline MRI, 3 months post-procedure, and is called halo. Volume was measured on MR images and compared to different follow-up moments to determine the effect of time on halo volume. Follow-up was carried out 3 months and 1, 2, 5, and 7 years after the procedure. Occurrence of complications and recurrences were assessed. Results: Of the 137 patients included, 82 were analyzed. Mean follow-up time was 43.6 months. Ablation was complete in 73 cases (89.0%). One late complication occurred, while no recurrences were seen. Halo dimensions of height, width, and depth decreased with a similar rate, 21.5% on average in the first year. Subsequently, this decrease in halo size continues gradually during follow-up, indicating bone revitalization. Conclusion: RFA is a safe and effective treatment in low-grade cartilaginous tumors with an initial success rate of 89.0%. Extended follow-up shows no local recurrences and gradual substitution of the halo with normal bone.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1817
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May-2021


  • percutaneous
  • ablation
  • low-grade cartilaginous tumor
  • halo
  • results
  • complications
  • BONE

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