A prominent health issue nowadays is the COVID-19 pandemic, which poses acute risks to human health. However, the long-term health consequences are largely unknown and cannot be neglected. An especially vulnerable period for infection is pregnancy, when infections could have long-term health effect on the child. Evidence suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) induced by either bacteria or viruses presents various effects on the offspring, leading to adverse phenotypes in many organ systems. This review compares the mechanisms of bacterial and viral MIA and the possible long-term outcomes for the offspring by summarizing the outcome in animal LPS and Poly I:C models. Both models are activated immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors. The outcomes for MIA offspring include neurodevelopment, immune response, circulation, metabolism and reproduction. Some of these changes keep existing until later life. Besides different doses and batches of LPS and Poly I:C, the injection day, administration route and also different animal species influence the outcomes. Here, we specifically aim to support colleagues when choosing their animal models for future studies.
|Journal||American journal of physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 7-Dec-2021|
- Fetal programming
- long-term outcome
- maternal infection
- polyinosinic polycytidylic acid