Mapping Change in Local Energy: Community Energy Groups and Their Theory of Change

Emma Folmer*, Anna Rebmann, Charlotte Johnson, Esther van der Waal, Alexandra Schneiders

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

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While social and environmental entrepreneurships have often been studied separately, in this chapter we study entrepreneurs who integrate social and environmental goals. Specifically, we study community enterprises in the local energy sector. Acknowledging the complexity of simultaneously creating social and environmental impact, this chapter uses the Theory of Change (ToC) model to unpack how these community enterprises are aiming to create change. We compare two community enterprises in the local energy sector and observe that their impact trajectory differs as they are differently embedded in their respective communities. This chapter provides avenues for future research, using ToC or other process tools, to get a better understanding of the impact creation process.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDe Gruyter Handbook of Sustainable Entrepreneurship Research
EditorsGjalt de Jong, Niels Faber, Emma Folmer, Tom Long, Berfu Ünal
PublisherDe Gruyter
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9783110756159
ISBN (Print)9783110755978
Publication statusPublished - 4-Oct-2023


  • Community entrepreneurship
  • Energy sector
  • Impact creation
  • Theory of Change

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