Mediterranean alien harmful algal blooms: Origins and impacts

Christina Marampouti*, Anita G J Buma, M Karin de Boer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are mostly phytoplankton blooms, which have detrimental environmental and socioeconomic impacts. The Mediterranean Sea due to its enclosed nature is of special concern since it has an enormously rich native biodiversity. Though, it is also the world's most invaded marine ecosystem and is considered at very high risk of future invasions. The aim of this review study is to explore the origins, establishment, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts of HABs caused by nonnative algal species in the Mediterranean Sea. Based on this, it is also discussed whether HABs form an increasing threat in the basin, and what could possibly be done to prevent or to minimize their impacts. The increasing rate of their introduction and the harmful impacts that they have on the environment, economy, and human health makes it important to have accurate knowledge about HABs. Anthropogenic activities and climate change are considered the main contributors of alien invasions but also the main enablers of HAB events. Mediterranean HABs are adequately studied, but there are no studies purposefully concerning invasive microalgae species in the basin. In the present study, 20 species have been identified, and an attempt has been made to collect their introduction information, as well as known or suspected impacts. Future research should be focused on data mining, current legislation updates, and monitoring of Mediterranean coastlines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3837–3851
Number of pages15
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume28
Early online date17-Aug-2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan-2021

Keywords

  • Harmful algal bloom
  • Invasive alien species
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Introductions
  • Pathways
  • Toxin
  • Syndromes
  • EPIPHYTIC DINOFLAGELLATE ASSEMBLAGES
  • COASTAL WATERS
  • ANNOTATED LIST
  • CLIMATE-CHANGE
  • CF. OVATA
  • SEA
  • DINOPHYCEAE
  • TOXINS
  • HEALTH
  • GULF

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