Mixed-Effects Trait-State-Occasion Model: Studying the Psychometric Properties and the Person–Situation Interactions of Psychological Dynamics

Sebastian Castro Alvarez*, Jorge Tendeiro, Peter de Jonge, Rob R. Meijer, Laura Bringmann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
182 Downloads (Pure)


The trait-state-occasion model (TSO) is a popular model within the latent state-trait theory (LST). The TSO allows distinguishing the trait and the state components of the psychological constructs measured in longitudinal data, while also taking into account the carry-over effects between consecutive measurements. In the present study, we extend a multilevel version of the TSO model to allow for the combination of fixed and random situations, namely the mixed-effects TSO (ME-TSO). Hence, the ME-TSO model is a measurement model suitable to analyze intensive longitudinal data that allows studying the psychometric properties of the indicators per individual, the heterogeneity of psychological dynamics, and the person–situation interaction effects. We showcase how to use the model by analyzing the items of positive affect activation of the crowdsourcing study HowNutsAreTheDutch (HoeGekisNL).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)438-451
Number of pages14
JournalStructural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal
Issue number3
Early online date12-Oct-2021
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • dynamic structural equation modeling
  • person–situation interaction
  • Trait-state-occasion model

Cite this