The cytoplasmic coenzyme NAD(+)-dependent alcohol (methanol) dehydrogenase (MDH) employed by Bacillus methanolicus during growth on C-1-C-4 primary alcohols is a decameric protein with 1 Zn2+-ion and 1-2 Mg2+-ions plus a tightly bound NAD(H) cofactor per subunit (a nicotinoprotein). Mg2+-ions are essential for binding of NAD(H) cofactor in MDH protein expressed in Escherichia coli. The low coenzyme NAD(+)-dependent activity of MDH with C-1-C-4 primary alcohols is strongly stimulated by a second B. methanolicus protein (ACT), provided that MDH contains NAD(H) cofactor and Mg2+-ions are present in the assay mixture. Characterization of the act gene revealed the presence of the highly conserved amino acid sequence motif typical of Nudix hydrolase proteins in the deduced ACT amino acid sequence. The act gene was successfully expressed in E. coli allowing purification and characterization of active ACT protein. MDH activation by ACT involved hydrolytic removal of the nicotinamide mononucleotide NMN(H) moiety of the NAD(H) cofactor of MDH, changing its Ping-Pong type of reaction mechanism into a ternary complex reaction mechanism. Increased cellular NADH/NAD(+) ratios may reduce the ACT-mediated activation of MDH, thus preventing accumulation of toxic aldehydes. This represents a novel mechanism for alcohol dehydrogenase activity regulation.
- METHYLOTROPHIC BACILLUS STRAINS
- METHANOL DEHYDROGENASE
- THERMOTOLERANT BACILLUS
- ACTIVATOR PROTEIN