Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological appearance among hospitalized pneumonia patients focusing on resistance and risk factors for mortality in a referral hospital.
Patients and methods: The study was an observational retrospective study on patients with CAP from 2014 to 2016 at Dr Soetomo referral hospital of Surabaya, Indonesia. All positive cultures with antimicrobial susceptibility results from blood and respiratory specimens were included. Patients infected with drug-susceptible pathogens and MDR organisms were also assessed in terms of clinical characteristics, day-3 clinical improvement, and 14-day mortality.
Results: Of 202 isolates, 181 possessed antimicrobial susceptibility data. S. pneumoniae was the most prevalent pathogen causing CAP (18.3%). Most patients were empirically treated with ceftriaxone (n=75; 41.4%). Among beta-lactam antibiotics, the susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporins remained relatively high, between 67.4% and 82.3%, compared with the other beta-lactams such as amoxicillin/clavulanate and ampicillin/sulbactam (a sensitivity rate of 36.5% and 47.5, respectively). For carbapenem antibiotics, imipenem and meropenem susceptibility was 69.6% and 82.3% respectively. Approximately 22% of isolates were identified as MDR that showed significant differences in clinical outcomes of 14-day mortality rates (p<0.001). Notably, patients with day-3 improvement had a lower risk of mortality (OR= 0.06; 95% CI= 0.02-0.19).
Conclusion: One-fifth of causative agents among hospitalized CAP cases were identified as MDR organisms. The pathogens of MDR and non-MDR CAP remain susceptible to the third-generation cephalosporins. Together with additional consideration of culture findings and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) assessment, a 3-day clinical assessment is essential to predict the prognosis of 14-day mortality.