Neutrophil-endothelial interactions in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: An understudied aspect with a potential for prediction of severity of disease

Amadu Juliana*, Rens Zonneveld, Frans B. Plotz, Matijs van Meurs, Jan Wilschut

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) causes significant morbidity and mortality among young infants worldwide. It is currently widely accepted that neutrophil influx into the airways is a hallmark of the pathophysiology. However, the exact mechanism of neutrophil migration from the vasculature into the alveolar space in RSV LRTI has received little attention. Data shows that endothelial cells become activated upon RSV infection, driving a 'pro-adhesive state' for circulating neutrophils with upregulation of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). During RSV LRTI different subsets of immature and mature neutrophils are present in the bloodstream, that upregulate integrins lymphocyte-function associated antigen (LFA)-1 and macrophage (Mac)-1, serving as ICAM-1 ligands. An alveolar gradient of interleukin-8 may serve as a potent chemoattractant for circulating neutrophils. Neutrophils from lung aspirates of RSV-infected infants show further signs of inflammatory and migratory activation, while soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (sCAMs), such as sICAM-1, have become measurable in the systemic circulation. Whether these mechanisms are solely responsible for neutrophil migration into the alveolar space remains under debate. However, data indicate that the currently postulated neutrophil influx into the lungs should rather be regarded as a neutrophil efflux from the vasculature, involving substantial neutrophil-endothelial interactions. Molecular patterns of these interactions may be clinically useful to predict outcomes of RSV LRTI and deserve further study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104258
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Virology
Volume123
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb-2020

Keywords

  • Neutrophils
  • Pro-inflammatory endothelial activation
  • Respiratory syncytial virus
  • Bronchiolitis
  • INTERCELLULAR-ADHESION MOLECULE-1
  • ACUTE LUNG INJURY
  • PLASMA ANGIOPOIETIN-2
  • EPITHELIAL-CELLS
  • VIRAL BRONCHIOLITIS
  • INFANTS
  • INFECTION
  • ACTIVATION
  • AIRWAYS
  • INFLAMMATION

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