Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders: Recommendations of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force – An Update

Task Force on Genetic Nomenclature in Movement Disorders, Lara M. Lange, Paulina Gonzalez-Latapi, Rajasumi Rajalingam, Marina A.J. Tijssen, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Carolin Gabbert, Christos Ganos, Rhia Ghosh, Kishore R. Kumar, Anthony E. Lang, Malco Rossi, Sterre van der Veen, Bart van de Warrenburg, Tom Warner, Katja Lohmann, Christine Klein*, Connie Marras

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)
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In 2016, the Movement Disorder Society Task Force for the Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders presented a new system for naming genetically determined movement disorders and provided a criterion-based list of confirmed monogenic movement disorders. Since then, a substantial number of novel disease-causing genes have been described, which warrant classification using this system. In addition, with this update, we further refined the system and propose dissolving the imaging-based categories of Primary Familial Brain Calcification and Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation and reclassifying these genetic conditions according to their predominant phenotype. We also introduce the novel category of Mixed Movement Disorders (MxMD), which includes conditions linked to multiple equally prominent movement disorder phenotypes. In this article, we present updated lists of newly confirmed monogenic causes of movement disorders. We found a total of 89 different newly identified genes that warrant a prefix based on our criteria; 6 genes for parkinsonism, 21 for dystonia, 38 for dominant and recessive ataxia, 5 for chorea, 7 for myoclonus, 13 for spastic paraplegia, 3 for paroxysmal movement disorders, and 6 for mixed movement disorder phenotypes; 10 genes were linked to combined phenotypes and have been assigned two new prefixes. The updated lists represent a resource for clinicians and researchers alike and they have also been published on the website of the Task Force for the Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders on the homepage of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-935
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number5
Early online date28-Apr-2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • genetics
  • movement disorders
  • nomenclature

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