Non-iatrogenic nephro-pleural fistula in a child

Rianne J.M. Lammers*, Stijn Roemeling, Martijn V. Verhagen, Josine S.L.T. Quaedackers

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    Background: A fistula between kidney and pleura is a rare entity, particularly in children. Fistulation is mostly iatrogenic, following percutaneous nephrolithotomy and has a reported incidence of <1%. In the absence of recent renal surgery the diagnosis may be hampered by a lack of suspicion. However, in Case of pyelonephritis with ipsilateral pulmonary symptoms fistulation between kidney and pleura should be considered.

    We present a pediatric case of a nephro-pleural fistula due to chronic pyelonephritis, as well as a review of the literature. We highlight that the etiology of the fistula may impact the effectivity of the treatment.

    Conclusions: Surgery-related fistulas mostly heal spontaneously with optimal drainage of urine combined with antibiotic treatment. In contrast, pyelonephritis-related fistulas (most common xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis) frequently require additional debridement by (partial) nephrectomy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number102020
    Number of pages4
    JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports
    Publication statusPublished - Oct-2021


    • Nephro-pleural fistula
    • Pediatric urology
    • Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

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