Non-tuberculous mycobacteria disease pre-lung transplantation: A systematic review of the treatment regimens and duration pre- and post-transplant

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Background: There is lack of consensus on non-tuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) treatment regimen and duration in patient listed for lung transplantation (LTx). We conducted a systematic review on treatment regimen and duration pre- and directly post-LTx, for patients with known NTM-PD pre-LTx. Additionally, we searched for risk factors for NTM disease development post-LTx and for mortality.

Methods: Literature was reviewed on PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library, for articles published from inception to January 2022. Individual patient data were sought.

Results: Sixteen studies were included reporting 92 patients. Most frequent used agents were aminoglycosides and macrolides for Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) and macrolides and tuberculostatic agents for Mycobacterium avium complex (M. avium complex). The median treatment duration pre-LTx was 10 months (IQR 6–17) and 2 months (IQR 2–8) directly post-LTx. Longer treatment duration pre-LTx was observed in children and in patients with M. abscessus. 46% of the patients with NTM-PD pre-LTx developed NTM disease post-LTx, related mortality rate was 10%. Longer treatment duration pre-LTx (p < 0.001) and sputum non-conversion pre-LTx (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with development of NTM-disease post-LTx. Longer treatment duration pre-LTx (p = 0.004), younger age (p < 0.001) and sputum non-conversion (p = 0.044) were risk factors for NTM related death.

Conclusions: The median treatment duration pre-LTx was 10 months (IQR 6–17) and 2 months (IQR 2–8) directly post-LTx. Patients with longer treatment duration for NTM-PD pre-LTx and with sputum non-conversion are at risk for NTM disease post-LTx and for NTM-related death. Children were particularly at risk for NTM related death.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100800
Number of pages7
JournalTransplantation Reviews
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2023


  • Antibiotics
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Lung transplantation
  • M. abscessus
  • M. avium complex
  • Non-tuberculous mycobacteria

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