Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

Siegwart Lindenberg*, Linda Steg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

692 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process information and act upon it. Three goal frames are distinguished: a hedonic, gain, and normative goal frame. In general, multiple goals are active at any given time, which may (or may not) be compatible; that is, the strength of the focal goal may be influenced by other goals that are in the background. Based on an extensive review of studies in environmental psychology, we suggest those conditions under which each goal frame may be dominant in influencing environmental behavior. In the environmental context, normative goal frames imply acting pro-environmentally, while gain and hedonic goal frames often result in not acting in an environmentally sound manner. Next, we argue that pro-environmental behavior may be promoted by strengthening normative goals or by making gain and hedonic goals less incompatible with normative goals. Finally, based on goal-framing theory, we suggest questions to be addressed in future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-137
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Social Issues
Volume63
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Keywords

  • RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
  • PROENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOR
  • RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR
  • ENERGY-CONSERVATION
  • CAR USE
  • INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
  • CONSUMER-BEHAVIOR
  • PLANNED BEHAVIOR
  • SOCIAL DILEMMAS
  • DETERMINANTS

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