In this paper, the notions of pseudo Gramians are introduced for linear time-invariant semistable systems, which allow multiple semisimple poles at the origin. The proposed Gramians are the generalizations of standard Gramian matrices defined for asymptotically stable systems, and they can be computed by a set of Lyapunov equations. Furthermore, it is shown that the controllability and observability of a semistable system are indicated by the ranks of the pseudo Gramians, and the controllability and observability energy functions are also characterized using the pseudo Gramians. Additionally, the H2-norm and H∞-norm of a semistable system are analyzed, and then the results are used for the model reduction of semistable systems. Finally, the effectiveness of the methods is illustrated by an example of a gene regulation network.
- Gramian matrix
- Model reduction
- Linear system
- Controllability and observability