Nuclear Imaging of Prostate Cancer with Gastrin-Releasing-Peptide-Receptor Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals

H. J. K. Ananias*, I. J. de Jong, R. A. Dierckx, C. van de Wiele, W. Helfrich, P. H. Elsinga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prostate cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer in men. Evaluating the different stages of prostate cancer with conventional imaging techniques still proves difficult. Nuclear imaging might provide a technique that is able to evaluate prostate cancer, but clinical application has been limited due to lack of accuracy of current radiopharmaceuticals.

The development of radiopharmaceuticals that can be targeted to specific antigens, overexpressed in prostate cancer, but sparse in normal tissue, is crucial. Peptides are of particular interest because of their favourable characteristics, leading to increased attention for nuclear imaging of the gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptor (GRPR) with radiolabelled bombesin-like peptides. Several derivatives of bombesin and its truncated form have been prepared for imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET), thereby delivering potent candidates for further clinical evaluation.

This article provides an overview of the development and preclinical evaluation of radiolabelled bombesin analogues for in vivo targeting of GRPR in prostate cancer. The effect of the radionuclide, chelator, spacer and unnatural amino acids on affinity, metabolic stability and image quality are discussed, as well as agonistic or antagonistic properties. Potent candidates are proposed based on these selection criteria: (I) high affinity for GRPR, with rapid and specific tumour uptake (II) high hydrophilicity resulting in the preferred renal-urinary mode of excretion and low hepatobiliary excretion, (III) high stability, but relatively rapid clearance from blood. Also, a summary is made of clinical studies that report on the detection of prostate cancer with GRPR targeted radiopharmaceuticals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3033-3047
Number of pages15
JournalCurrent Pharmaceutical Design
Volume14
Issue number28
Publication statusPublished - Oct-2008

Keywords

  • Bombesin
  • GRPR
  • nuclear imaging
  • prostate cancer
  • PET
  • SPECT
  • POSITRON-EMISSION-TOMOGRAPHY
  • BOMBESIN-LIKE PEPTIDES
  • IN-VIVO EVALUATION
  • CELL LUNG-CANCER
  • GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS
  • MITOXANTRONE PLUS PREDNISONE
  • PELVIC LYMPH-NODES
  • GRP-RECEPTOR
  • HIGH-AFFINITY
  • POSITIVE TUMORS

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