Olanzapine as a prophylactic antiemetic for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after general anesthesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The antiemetic effectiveness of olanzapine, as a prophylactic off-label antiemetic drug, for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is unknown. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the authors evaluate the efficacy and side effects of olanzapine as a prophylactic antiemetic in adult patients who undergo general anesthesia and assess adverse effects.

METHODS: A systematic search was done on electronic bibliographic databases in July 2023. Randomized controlled trials of olanzapine as a prophylactic antiemetic for PONV in adults who underwent general anesthesia were included. The authors excluded non-RCTs and retracted studies. The authors set no date of publication or language limits. The outcomes were the incidence of PONV within 24 h postoperatively and the safety of olanzapine. The risk of bias was assessed according to the tool suggested by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

RESULTS: Meta-analysis included 446 adult patients. Olanzapine reduced on average 38 % the incidence of PONV. The estimated risk ratio (95 % CI) of olanzapine versus control was 0.62 (0.42-0.90), p = 0.010, I2 = 67 %. In the subgroup meta-analysis, doses of olanzapine (10 mg) reduced on average 49 % of the incidence of PONV (RR = 0.51 [0.34-0.77], p = 0.001, I2 = 31 %).

CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review with meta-analysis indicated that olanzapine as a prophylactic antiemetic alone or combined with other antiemetic agents reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, this conclusion must be presented with some degree of uncertainty due to the small number of studies included. There was a lack of any evidence to draw conclusions on side effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100345
JournalClinics
Volume79
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Antiemetics/therapeutic use
  • Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control
  • Olanzapine/adverse effects
  • Anesthesia, General/adverse effects

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