One year effectiveness of an app-based treatment for urinary incontinence in comparison to care as usual in Dutch general practice: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial over 12 months

Anne M M Loohuis*, Henk Van Der Worp, Nienke J Wessels, Janny H Dekker, Marijke C Ph Slieker-Ten Hove, Marjolein Y Berger, Karin M Vermeulen, Marco H Blanker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effectiveness of app-based treatment for female stress, urgency, or mixed urinary incontinence (UI) compared to care-as-usual in primary care.

DESIGN: A pragmatic, randomised controlled, superiority trial.

SETTING: Primary care in the Netherlands from 2015 to 2018, follow-up at 12 months.

POPULATION: Women with ≥2 UI-episodes per week, access to mobile apps, wanting treatment. 262 women randomised equally to app or care-as-usual; 89 (68%) and 83 (63%) attended one year follow-up.

INTERVENTIONS: The standalone app included conservative management for UI with motivation aids (e.g., reminders). Care-as-usual delivered according to the Dutch GP guideline for UI.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effectiveness assessed by the change in symptom severity score (ICIQ-UI-SF) and the change in quality of life (ICIQ-LUTS-QoL) with linear regression on an intention-to-treat basis.

RESULTS: Clinically relevant improvement of UI severity for both app (-2.17 ± 2.81) and care-as-usual (-3.43 ± 3.6), with a non-significant mean difference of 0.903 (-0.66 to 1.871).

CONCLUSION: App-based treatment is a viable alternative to care-as-usual for UI in primary care in terms of effectiveness after one year.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1474-1480
Number of pages7
JournalBJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Issue number9
Early online date31-May-2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • app
  • effectiveness
  • eHealth
  • general practice
  • long term
  • pragmatic
  • primary care
  • self-management
  • urinary incontinence
  • ICIQ

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