Background: The aim of this study was to compare adaptive intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) robustness and organ sparing capabilities with that of adaptive volumetric arc photon therapy (VMAT). Material and methods: Eighteen lung cancer patients underwent a planning 4DCT (p4DCT) and 5 weekly repeated 4DCT (r4DCT) scans. Target volumes and organs at risk were manually delineated on the three-dimensional (3D) average scans of the p4DCT (av_p4DCT) and of the r4DCT scans (av_r4DCT). Planning target volume (PTV)-based VMAT plans and internal clinical target volume (ICTV)-based robust IMPT plans were optimized in 3D on the av_p4DCT and re-calculated on the av_r4DCTs. Re-planning on av_r4DCTs was performed when indicated and accumulated doses were evaluated on the av_p4DCT. Results: Adaptive VMAT and IMPT resulted in adequate ICTV coverage on av_r4DCT in all patients and adequate accumulated-dose ICTV coverage on av_p4DCT in 17/18 patients (due to a shrinking target in one patient). More frequent re-planning was needed for IMPT than for VMAT. The average mean heart dose reduction with IMPT compared with VMAT was 4.6 Gy (p = .001) and it was >5 Gy for five patients (6, 7, 8, 15, and 22 Gy). The average mean lung dose reduction was 3.2 Gy (p < .001). Significant reductions in heart and lung V5 Gy were observed with IMPT. Conclusion: Robust-planned IMPT required re-planning more often than VMAT but resulted in similar accumulated ICTV coverage. With IMPT, heart and lung mean dose values and low dose regions were significantly reduced. Substantial cardiac sparing was obtained in a subgroup of five patients (28%).